The demand for science stream subjects - chemistry, physics and biology - never shows a slowdown in India and is commonplace in every part of the country. The scope for chemistry class 12 students in this regard is filled with numerous but great career options. Widely known as ‘The Science of Matter’, the oxford dictionary defines chemistry as ‘the branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed; the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances.’ Chemistry for class 12 is the first step towards making a career choice in the field of chemistry. In other words, chemistry studies various atoms, molecules and other forms of matter in which are enclosed the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the involvement of chemical processes. A professional of chemistry is known as a chemist. Higher Secondary Certificate or HSC chemistry courses are numerous in India and apart from academic options are also of great relevance in varying ways including laboratory skills, writing technical reports, in logical and analytical thinking, understanding the chemical composition of different food products and so on. Chemistry class 12 NCERT solutions can be found online these days, helps you understand the subject better. For students seeking to make chemistry their specialisation in India, there are a number of different courses in this branch of science with yet many different options of studying the same course.
Eligibility Requirements For Different Chemistry Courses
Though the selection process and eligibility criteria of different colleges or universities in India are somewhat specifically different, the basic eligibility requirement that a candidate has to have to apply for different courses are provided below.
For Undergraduate (UG) Courses
Having completed 10+2, with a minimum of 50% marks in the HSC examinations from ICSE, CBSE or from any other recognised board enables a candidate to apply for a UG course in chemistry.
For Postgraduate (PG) Courses
Graduate candidates pursuing admission to the PG courses in chemistry must have completed their graduation (in science stream) from a recognised university with a minimum of anywhere between 50-60% aggregate marks in their undergraduate level.
For Doctor Of Philosophy (PhD) Courses
Candidates should have completed their post-graduation course in chemistry from a recognised university with a minimum mark of 60% to be eligible to apply for a PhD program.
Chemistry Specialisation Courses In India
India offers chemistry courses in numerous different specialisations. Let us look at 5 of the main branches of chemistry.
Organic chemistry studies the properties, structure and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Since not all carbon reactions are organic, another way to understand organic chemistry would be to study the molecules containing carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond and their reactions.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the properties and behaviour of inorganic compounds such as minerals, metals and organometallic compounds. Though inorganic chemistry is the study of compounds other than organic compounds, there is overlap between the two fields. For example, organometallic compounds, which usually contain a metal or metalloid bonded directly to carbon.
Physical chemistry is that branch of chemistry which is primarily concerned with interactions and transformations of every type of materials. It deals with the principles of physics found underlying all chemical interactions thereby seeking to measure, correlate and explain the reactions from a quantitative aspect. Subcategories of physical chemistry include electrochemistry, photochemistry, surface chemistry, and catalysis.
A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemistry tries to understand how biological molecules give rise to the processes occurring within living cells and between cells which, in turn, further relates to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, organism structure and function. It can be divided into three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter. It consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods. Analytical chemistry also focuses on improvements in experimental design, chemometrics, and the creation of new measurement tools.
Effectively Preparing For Chemistry Lessons
For any student of class 12 pursuing chemistry lessons not just for scoring well in HSC chemistry exams but also with keeping in mind to get admission in a reputed institution, a good hold on the subject is required. In order to attain this, a student may opt for certain options.
Drawing On Class Notes
Schools offer short and crisp notes on important chemistry topics. A student would do well to prepare chemistry notes from those relevant topics. Chemistry textbooks, particularly NCERT textbooks, are greatly organised to cover important topics. Often times what one learns from the classrooms and school chemistry lab serve to be enough for scoring well in the examinations.
Help From Internet
With the advent of the internet, learning has become much more dynamic. Information is ready at hand all one needs to do it to search. As it is for all subjects, be it political science, maths, Sanskrit, Urdu or UPSC preparation guides, in the like manner those who are interested are in chemistry, the option of books download is the most potent advantage. A wide range of reference books is available online to get additional and extensive information.
Chemistry is a subject which involves a great deal of categorisation and ordering. The periodic table is one such instance. Keeping this in mind, a student can help himself by the categorical method of learning chemistry. A student can organise data gathered from chemistry lessons into various categories such as based on atomic number, atomic mass, nomenclature, acid and bases, periodicity, number of protons and neutrons etc.
Coaching centres are a prevalent phenomenon in the country. Students can draw extra information from the tutors and practice on general but tough chemistry questions in a coaching institute.
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Hiring A Private Tutor
But the most rewarding method, perhaps, would be to hire a private chemistry tutor. A private tutor can help you clear doubt on various topics such as understanding the molecular structure, atomic structure, chemical bonds, different chemical reactions and so on. Even for students who do not want to specialise in chemistry or are weak in general chemistry, tutors would be of great help. With online teaching in India becoming a positive trend, it is always good to hire a home tutor from sites like Superprof India. In search of a chemistry tutor? Check Superprof India where you can find professional teachers.
Some Renowned Entrance Exams
In the majority of Indian colleges, admission to the undergraduate courses in chemistry is offered on the basis of 10+2 qualifying exam merit. However, some prestigious colleges such as Banaras Hindu University even opt for entrance examinations. For postgraduate courses, admission is mostly done through on the basis of exams only. Given below are some popular science entrance examinations that candidates should consider appearing for in order to secure a seat in the best science college in the country:
- IIT Joint Admission Test or IIT JAM: Joint Admission Test for MSc (JAM) is an all-India level online entrance exam conducted by Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) every year on behalf of Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India.
- Banaras Hindu University (BHU) PET: BHU conducts every year postgraduate Entrance Test (PET) for admissions to PG programmes offered by its affiliated colleges.
- National Entrance Screening Test (NEST): NEST is conducted jointly by the National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), Bhubaneswar and Mumbai University - Department of Atomic Energy Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE CEBS). The exam is conducted annually to offer admission to students for the Master’s program in the science field.
- JMI Entrance Test: Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI) University conducts its own entrance exam for offering admission to the aspirants in it various UG and PG courses including that of chemistry.
Best Institutions In India To Pursue Chemistry From
A number of prestigious Indian universities or institutions offer courses on chemistry. On a random sequence, some of them are listed below.
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
The chemical science department of The Indian Institute of Science (IIS) has maintained its rank as one of the best in Asia. IIS has one of the oldest chemistry departments in the country. For any aspirant of chemistry, IIS is an ideal place to study.
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
The chemistry department of JNU is among India’s forerunners in terms of research and training purposes. The university is equipped with excellent infrastructure, advanced laboratories and a well-stocked library.
University of Delhi, Delhi
The fame of Delhi University stretches to all parts of India. Students from all over the country try their best to enrol themselves in this. In terms of studying chemistry here, it is no different.
University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
The chemistry department of the University of Hyderabad offers excellent facilities and infrastructure for a chemistry aspirant. Pursuing one’s course from here increases one’s chance to land himself a good career option.
Banaras Hindu University
Situated in the holy of Varanasi, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) offers one of the best teaching faculties for different sub-disciplines of chemistry. BHU conducts its own entrance exam for admissions in various departments, including chemistry. Learning chemistry can both be interesting and a great option to find a lucrative career. With a stronghold on chemistry, one can become a chemical engineer, analytical chemist, biotechnologist, nanotechnologist, pharmacologist, research scientist and so on. Therefore, if you are looking for a career in chemistry, prepare effectively and efficiently.