Class 10 is a very important benchmark to clear for future success in India. Every year thousands of students appear for class 10 board exams. There are many subjects involved in the syllabus of class 10 curriculum. Science, Maths, Social Studies and others are must to clear. And to get past all the important subjects, students study hard every year.

Now, if we take a closer look at the various topics involved in the Science part. There are three sections overall like Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. And if you master all these subjects, you will excel in various future subjects. Some of the primary ones are thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, general physics, nuclear physics, quantum physics, etc. These subjects are not as such in the class 10 syllabus. But, one needs to have a grip on them for a successful education ahead. Check the syllabus for class 10 physics.

Now, Physics is one of the crucial parts of the science subject. And to be more clear electricity and magnetism are a part of that. Know more about the topic of electricity here. Hence, it is very crucial for you to have a piece of good knowledge of that. To help you with it here is a brief discussion of the chapter magnetic effects of current.

Basic Physics Behind Magnetism

physics class 10
Magnets have two ends. South pole and North pole. Credits Freepik

Well, let’s see, every one of us has played with magnets right. And we all know that it has two poles. Well if you don’t, then let me tell you, it has two poles namely North and South pole. The cool thing about magnets in practical and theoretical physics is that their like poles repel each other. On the other hand, the unlike poles of the magnet attract each other.

Along with this, if you take a magnet near a magnetic compass the like poles will repel each other and vice versa. To move further, let’s talk about something more interesting. There are many things in science that need attention but worth are those which are practical. Astrophysics, special relativity, statistical mechanics, general relativity and many others are worth learning and studying. But, let us divert ourselves towards Magnetism.

Magnetic Field and Magnetic Field Lines

To understand this, take a bar magnet along with some iron fillings. Put the magnet on a sheet and spread the iron fillings on the sheet. You will notice that all the iron fillings will get attracted to the magnet, thus forming a pattern. Just like black holes suck the objects in the universe, similarly, the magnet attracts the iron fillings.

The area in which the iron fillings form a pattern around the magnet is known as a magnetic field. And the pattern that forms in the form of lines is known as magnetic field lines. A magnetic field is a vector quantity with both magnitude and direction. If we talk about direction, the magnetic field lines run from north to south outside the magnet. Whereas, they run from south to north inside the magnet. Read to know more about magnetism.

If we talk about the strength, the magnitude of the magnetic field varies based on the type of conductor and various other factors. Along with this, no two magnetic field lines cross each other. Because if they do, the compass needle will point in two directions which is not possible.

Magnetic Field Due To Various Current-Carrying Conductors

class 10 physics
While humans may not be able to determine the Earth's magnetic fields, a simple tool like a compass can do the work for us using the four cardinal directions. Source: Pixabay

Now, whenever electric charge powered electric current passes through a conductor. It always has a magnetic effect on it. To keep it plainly, there are many conductors which have different magnetic field magnitude based on their shape. Let’s study some of them.

Straight Conductor

The first conductor of this unit of class 10 physics is the straight conductor. When we pass an electric current through this conductor, the pattern of magnetic field lines is the same. The thing that varies in the direction of the lines. 

In order to know about the exact direction of the lines, there is a specific rule known as a right-hand thumb rule. As per the right-hand thumb rule, if he current is flowing in the direction of your thumb pointing vertically, the direction of the magnetic field is in the way your fingers wrap around the conductor.

Circular Conductor

The circular conductor is nothing but a straight conductor bend in the form of a circle. And the direction of magnetic field lines varies from point to point on the conductor. To know the magnetic field direction at each point, apply the right-hand thumb rule. It is also important to know that the strength of the magnetic field increases with the number of turns of the circular conductor.

Solenoid

A Solenoid is a cylindrical shaped coil conductor made by multiple turns of insulated copper wire. The arrangement is made such that one end of the solenoid behaves as the north pole, and the other end is called the south pole. And in this way, a solenoid also behaves like a bar magnet. 

Force Due To A Current-Carrying Conductor

Not only the magnetic field, but the flowing of current through a conductor also exerts a force when kept in a magnetic field. And to know the value and direction of force, let move on to the next section.

The force exerted on the metal conductor depends on various parameters. Magnetic flux, length of the conductor, current, and number of turns decide the value of force. The general formula is 

F = B x I x L x Sin of the angle between the current and magnetic flux.

To know the direction of all these parameters, you need to use a different rule this time. It is Fleming’s left-hand rule. As per Fleming’s left-hand rule, if the direction of the index finger gives you the direction of the magnetic field. And the middle finger gives you the direction of the current, then the thumb will give you the direction of force, provided all the fingers are kept mutually perpendicular to each other. The concept of force is kind of similar to Newton’s third law of motion. Know more about the various forces in physics

These are all the basic concepts of the magnetic effects of current. If you master these, the next section will be easy to understand. In the following section, we will study the devices that work on the principles of the magnetic effect of current.

Electric Motor

One of the simplest devices that comes first is the electric motor. The basic diagram of the electric motor can be seen in the class 10 physics chapter. Here, we will just take a brief overview of the whole concept. 

Now in an electric motor, a coil is attached to a battery circuit while putting between two magnet poles. And when the current is passed through this conductor, the coil rotates in the direction found by Fleming’s left-hand rule. To understand it clearly, you might need to refer to the diagram of the motor circuit. In an electric motor, the direction of the flow of current is reversed as the rotation is halfway through. This is the reason the motor tends to complete the full rotation. The special device that controls the changing of direction of the current is known as a commutator. An electric motor uses split rings as commutators.

Electromagnetic Induction

basics class 10 physics
The backlight that is featured on some bikes is known as a dynamo and is a type of DC generator. Source: Pixabay

This is a really interesting topic. The basic definition of this is to make current flowing another circuit by changing the parameters of a different circuit. Hence, when the magnetic field in one circuit is changed, a current is induced in another circuit. This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. Based on this is put the next section, the electric generator. Also, learn about various waves and their effects and sources of energy

Now, unlike the electric motor, the electric generator produces current by using the motion of the coil. What happens in this is the coil kept between the two magnet poles is rotated by an external force. And this leads to the production of current in the galvanometer circuit. This current can be further used to power various electric circuits ahead.

This is all about the topic of electromagnetism in class 10 physics. Now, let’s talk about how to prepare well for these.

How To Learn Physics Online?

Well, if you have a good internet connection, you can take physics lessons through an online course. These days there are many online courses available. You can read books or watch free online videos on the internet and get a hold on topics. Also learn the concept of particle model and the various atomic structures here. 

Superprof And Class 10 Physics

Now, physics online is a great option but if you want a personal tutor. You need to get an account on Superprof. Superprof is an online tutoring platform that helps both tutors and students to find each other. Plus, there are also many benefits to Superprof. Get additional tips to score good marks in exams. 

You get a lot of choices for tutors on the platform. You can check their valuable experience and qualification in the bio. You can even get a free lecture from the tutor to understand their teaching style. If you are not satisfied with the type of teaching, you can look for more tutors as there are many. Good luck!

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