The subject of Biology is more relevant in our lives than we give it credit for. Consider this: Farmers must learn almost everything about crops, the way they should be raised, the amount of water to be irrigated, nutriments to be fed, or the amount of fertilizers to be used to obtain the best harvest. Apply the same principles to livestock farming and you have Biology dictating the factors.
In Biology, we study the different parts of an animal/plant, which further helps us understand the mechanisms in action in processes such as reproduction, metabolism, food collection, behaviour. It also helps us understand many aspects of animals/plants.
The study of biology is too important for us, and that’s for many reasons.
99% of Medicine, or the discipline of healthcare, is based on Biology. Virology, Mycology, and Pharmacology are some of the sub-sciences that medicine deals with and needs knowledge of Biology.
Diseases, which can go from deadly epidemics to the headache you have because of flu, are all related to Biology. And, thankfully, Biology also holds the key to resolving these great threats to our lives. Scientists study life to produce cures for the many epidemics and mortal diseases that plague the world.
In the domain of our environment, Biology studies the link between living things and the place they live in, and between those living things themselves. It is the job of biologists to detect, inventory, compare, analyze, and understand phenomena, such as global warming (the most catastrophic result of human interventions on the environment).
Biology helps us understand our bodies and the changes occurring in them.
All living organisms go through a life cycle or a series of continuous changes that happen every second in our bodies. These changes have irreversible impacts, given the unidirectional nature of their timeline. Growth, metabolism, reproduction, aging, or even the simple act of breathing are all processes that only the subject of Biology can explain!
Let us now look at the key topics for revision in the Class 10 Biology syllabus in India. Supplement your class notes with these revision notes from Superprof and give yourself the best chance to achieve high marks in your Board (ICSE or CBSE) exams!
Genetics and Heredity ICSE Class 10
The subject matter of Biology requires multiple readings and revisions. The chapter on Genetics and Heredity is content-based, most of which needs to be memorized. It is important for students to create a proper study schedule, devoting their time and focus on scoring areas and chapters they are weak in.
Some Key Terms to Master Before the Exam
- Gene: A region of DNA that is made up of nucleotides.
- Allele: Every gene has 2 alternative forms for a character producing different effects. These alternative forms of a gene are called alleles.
- Variation: These are small differences in individuals due to inheritance leading to differences in the phenotype (observable physical and behavioral characteristics).
- Mutation: These are sudden changes in one or more genes or in the number and structure of chromosomes in the progeny. They cause a change in the genotype and phenotype and are inheritable.
- Autosomes: These carry genes that determine the somatic characteristics and do not have any influence on determining the sex of the organism.
- Allosomes: These are sex chromosomes that carry the genes responsible for sexual characteristics and as such have a significant role in the determination of sex.
- Haploid cells: These are cells that contain a single set of chromosomes.
- Diploid cells: Most mammals are diploid organisms, which means they have two homologous copies of each chromosome in the cells.
- Criss-cross inheritance: The genes which are located on the X chromosome (sex chromosome) are called sex-linked genes. These genes show criss-cross inheritance.
Students are advised to read the ICSE Class 10 Biology textbook regularly. Students should also test themselves with mock exams and sample papers. The latter helps to introduce students to a variety of questions.
Life Processes CBSE Class 10
Make sure all your class projects and those required to be submitted before the commencement of exams are ready. This helps students to concentrate on the theoretical aspects in the books prescribed by the Board (ICSE or CBSE).
Revising the entire syllabus and the keynotes helps students to get a grip on the whole curriculum without wasting too much energy.
All the processes, such as respiration, nutrition, circulation, excretion, etc., that are necessary for the survival of the living organisms are known as life processes. The essential life processes that students must revise are discussed here.
Nutrition is the process by which an organism takes in food and utilizes it to obtain energy for growth, repair, and maintenance. Organisms require this energy to perform various activities throughout life. The energy is derived from the nutrients which are obtained during nutrition.
Respiration is a metabolic process that involves the breakdown of food to release energy. The process may take place in different conditions like the presence or absence of oxygen, or limited availability of oxygen. The first step in all 3 cases is the breakdown of glucose into a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This process takes place in the cytoplasm.
- In Humans: Carried out by the circulatory system. It is responsible for the supply of oxygen, nutrients, removal of carbon dioxide, and other excretory products.
- In Plants: Plants have specialized vascular tissues for the transportation of water and minerals.
Excretion is the biological process involved in the removal of harmful metabolic waste from the body.
Digestive System CBSE Class 10
Get into the habit of practicing your Biology diagrams so that you do not miss any of the minute details during the examination. Go through the diagrams thoroughly before the exams commence. Here are some important notes on the digestive system for students to remember.
Process of Digestion
The process of digestion begins in the mouth and ends in the small intestine. Diagrams especially help with the understanding of natural processes inside living organisms, such as digestion.
Parts of Human Digestive System
The human digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract or alimentary canal, along with the accessory organs. These 2 parts work together to process digestion.
The alimentary canal consists of:
- Mouth or buccal cavity
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
The accessory organs consist of:
- Gall bladder
Heredity Evolution CBSE Class 10
Solve previous year's question papers and take note of the common questions that have been asked. Observe the patterns of questions and answers.
The study of heredity and variation is collectively known as genetics. Heredity is defined as the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Gregor Johann Mendel is considered the 'Father of Genetics' was an Austrian Monk who conducted research on pea plants to understand the concept of heredity. This research laid the groundwork for modern genetics.
Mendel devised 3 basic laws of inheritance.
Laws of Mendel
- The Law of Dominance says that a gene has two contrasting alleles and one always expresses itself in the organism. It is called the dominant gene and it expresses in any possible combination.
- The Law of Segregation says that traits get segregated completely during the formation of gametes without any mixing of alleles.
- The Law of Independent Assortment says that the traits can segregate independently of different characters during gamete formation.
For a more detailed revision guide on Heredity and Evolution, check out revision notes by Superprof.
Reproduction CBSE Class 10
During your Biology class in school, get into the habit of noting down the important topics. This can also be done at the time of regular studies. Such notes come in handy during last-minute preparation for exams.
Reproduction is the biological process of producing a new individual or an offspring identical to the parents. Reproduction is a fundamental characteristic of all livings things.
Types of Reproduction
There are 2 types of reproduction.
- Asexual Reproduction: It involves only 1 parent. The new offspring produced is genetically similar to the parent. Asexual reproduction can be further divided into:
- Binary fission
- Multiple fission
- Spore formation
- Vegetative propagation
- Sexual Reproduction: This involves the formation and transfer of gametes, followed by fertilization, the formation of the zygote, and embryogenesis. Sexual reproduction in plants involves 2 processes, namely:
Parting Tips for Class 10 Biology
Keep these pointers in mind when you are writing your exam paper:
- Write the answers depending on the marks allocated to the questions.
- If a particular question appears difficult, do not get stuck on it. Move on if you are not able to find the answer to that question.
- Practice writing answers and the time your responses are taking should tell you where you stand. During the exam, keep an eye on the time.
- Include diagrams wherever required to explain the answer.
- Try to maintain good handwriting throughout the answer sheet.
Students must study through the NCERT Class 10 Science textbook. The NCERT book is the guiding force behind the Board exam question paper. Students must also solve the exercise questions at the end of each chapter.
CBSE Class 10 Biology is a source of fetching high marks in your Board exams. However, your revision and preparation must be thorough to achieve such marks. Adequate understanding and clarity are vital for this. Refer to the revision notes on Reproduction offered by Superprof to better your chances of scoring high!