If you want to break the rules of grammar, first learn the rules of grammar - Kurt Vonnegut
The basics of Hindi lessons start with grammar and tenses. Tenses are a very important part of your lessons when you learn Hindi. Tenses in Hindi, like any other languages, gives you an idea about the time that the action took place. So, basically they give you an idea about the time of the verb in the whole sentence. For example, "I am playing", or "I dance" are all giving you a sense of when the action has taken place or is taking place or will take place. The simple way to express the same verb in different time is to add a suffix to the tense - ing or ed, for example. Alternatively, a supporting verb can also be used.
The basic grammar rules are same across all languages - be it English or Hindi or any other language. In Hindi also, there are suffixes added to the verbs to modify the tense to place it appropriately in a tense. So, a basic grammar lesson with a Hindi tutor should set the tone for learning Hindi the right way for students in India and elsewhere.
Learn Hindi the Right Way: Importance of Tenses
Over 40% of India's population speak Hindi as their mother tongue. Derived from the Devanagari script, it is one of the 22 official languages of India. There are 500 million+ speakers of Hindi across the world. Some of the biggest Hindi-speaking countries include,
- South Africa
Just like English, Hindi also has three main tenses - past, present, and future. In turn, each of these tenses has four forms - simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous. Despite the similarity in their nature and classification, the significance of each tense lies in the way they are used in relation to time. It is thus very important to understand how to use tenses with particular verbs.
In order to maintain effective communication, one must be able to use the appropriate tense in accordance with the situation and the time. And to do this, you have to ascertain the different aspects of Hindi verbs. These include the state of being, the nature of action - whether it's complete or still continuing. If you can do this, you can easily conjugate verbs just by analyzing the structure of tenses. This will help you create clear and well-articulated sentences. It will also enhance readability when you are expressing something in writing, thereby making it more appealing.
You can find out about spoken Hindi classes online here on Superprof.
Trivia: Did you know that the word "tense" is derived from "tempus". the Latin word for time?
Find A Hindi Teacher Near Me to Learn Hindi Verbs
Verbs are words used in any language and grammar to convey an action or a state of being. Just like English, Hindi verbs too have many basic attributes. These include,
Hindi Classes At Home-
The Person in Verbs
The person denotes the relationship between the listener or reader and the speaker or writer. Just like English, Hindi also has three persons, namely -
- First person
- Second person
- Third person
The Number in Verbs
To denote the singularity or plurality of verbs, you use numbers.
The Gender in Verbs
Unlike English verbs, Hindi verbs are classified according to two genders - masculine and feminine. The gender is determined by the subject of the verb. In case of transitive verbs, the object of the verb is what determines the gender.
Fundamentals of Hindi Lessons
The Hindi grammar system is quite elegant and distinct. The different attributes listed above are combined to form distinct verb characteristics. For example, the combination of aspect and tense or mood is the core of Hindi verbs. Typically, an aspect is combined with a copula to result in a combination. These patterns of combination are important to understand and remember in order to be fluent in the Hindi language.
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The Different Aspects of Hindi Verbs
The kind or nature of action of a verb is denoted by its aspect. In Hindi, there are four basic aspects of the verb. They are discussed in detail below.
There are some general aspects or states demonstrated by any verb. These are called its aspects.
The continuous or ongoing actions or states of verbs are referred to as continuous aspects of the verbs.
There are some actions that maybe viewed as a simple whole. These are referred to as perfective aspects of the verbs.
The combination of a tense and an aspect make up a perfect aspect. This indicates a completed action which has time-related relevance.
Non-Aspect Forms of Hindi Verbs
You will find many verb forms in the Hindi language which have no distinct aspect. Verbs such as the future tense or imperative mood are some examples of non-aspectual verbs in Hindi.
Learn Hindi Online - Moods of Hindi Verbs
The form of verb that indicates modality is called mood. Modality, in its turn, is used to qualify the verb in some category - necessity, obligation, possibility, ability, etc. In Hindi lessons of grammar, you will come across four basic moods. They are discussed in detail below.
1. Indicative Mood
The mood that is used for general indications is called indicative mood.
2. Imperative Mood
This mood is used to give imperatives, commands, and exhortations.
3. Subjunctive Mood
The mood used for subordinate clauses and modalities like wishes or polite exhortations falls under this category.
4. Presumptive Mood
The mood used to presume some action or situation is called presumptive mood.
Other Types of Modality in Hindi Lessons
In Hindi, there are still other types of modalities that can be expressed without the use of grammatical moods. For example, in English, the verbal auxiliary "can" is used mean ability. It is not a mood, rather a verbal modality.
Your grammar is a reflection of your image. Good or bad, you have made an impression. And like all impressions, you are in total control - Jeffrey Gitomer
Basics of Hindi Lessons - Transitive & Ergative Verbs
When you learn Hindi grammar, you will come across two basic properties of verbs - transitivity and ergativity.
Transitive Property of Hindi Verbs
A verb that takes an object is called a transitive verb. For example, in the sentence, "Jack threw the ball", the ball is the object of the verb threw. Therefore, you can transform an active and transitive verb into an equivalent sentence with passive verb. In the latter, however, the object will become the subject of the sentence by adding the agentive preposition "by".
Unlike English grammar, where only transitive verbs can have passive forms, in Hindi, intransitive verbs may also be passive. In this case, such passive verbs are used to express inability or passivity.
Ergative Property of Hindi Verbs
Hindi is called a partially ergative language. This means that there may be situations where the verb agrees with the object, but not the subject. This is in stark contrast to English grammar where the verb has to agree with the subject. It is to be remembered, however, that Hindi is only partially ergative when the verb agrees to the object in case it has both transitive and perfective properties. And some verbs are exceptions to the general rule.
Learn Hindi Grammar - The Voice
The relationship between the subject and the action of a verb is reflected by the verb's voice. In Hindi, there are two voices -
- Active Voice
- Passive Voice
When the subject performs the action of the verb, it means that an active voice is at play. For example, in the sentence - Jane threw the stick, the verb "threw" is in the active voice. Jane, the subject of the verb is performing the action on the object "stick"
When the subject is the recipient of the verb, the latter is in passive voice. For example, in the sentence - The stick was thrown by Jane, "was thrown" is the verb and it is in passive voice. The subject, "stick" receives the action of the verb, "was thrown". The agentive preposition is "by" that separates the agent from the action of the verb.
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