The Constitution of India begins with a short statement of its basic values. It contains the philosophy on which our constitution has been built. It provides a standard two exam and evaluates any law and action of the government to determine whether it is good or bad; it can be said that preamble is the soul of the Indian constitution. India is the largest democracy in the world, and the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950.

A constitution is a set of rules and regulations through which a country is governed.

The Indian constitution has 448 articles, 25 parts, 12 schedules, and 104 amendments. The different parts of the Indian Constitution have various articles that discuss the sections of various constitutional bodies, fundamental rights of citizens, legislatures, executive, and other government branches, as well as the different schedules.

November 26 is celebrated as Constitution Day. Find out here why we must honor and celebrate our Constitution and how we can do so on this auspicious day.

The Constitution of India is the largest written document of its kind in the world. | Image source: Jagran Josh
The best tutors available
Sujith
5
5 (3 reviews)
Sujith
₹3,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Prateek
5
5 (8 reviews)
Prateek
₹600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Arritokieta
Arritokieta
₹1,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Dastaan
Dastaan
₹2,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Bakka vemana
Bakka vemana
₹600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Dastaan
Dastaan
₹2,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Arpit
5
5 (49 reviews)
Arpit
₹800
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Priyanka
5
5 (50 reviews)
Priyanka
₹400
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Aishwarya
5
5 (42 reviews)
Aishwarya
₹2,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Kunjan
5
5 (12 reviews)
Kunjan
₹1,500
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Ruchi
5
5 (36 reviews)
Ruchi
₹1,800
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Kiran
4.9
4.9 (8 reviews)
Kiran
₹1,400
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Shambhavi
Shambhavi
₹600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Dhruv
5
5 (3 reviews)
Dhruv
₹1,600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Viparv
5
5 (3 reviews)
Viparv
₹500
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Prince
5
5 (5 reviews)
Prince
₹750
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Uma shankar
Uma shankar
₹500
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Sujith
5
5 (3 reviews)
Sujith
₹3,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Prateek
5
5 (8 reviews)
Prateek
₹600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Arritokieta
Arritokieta
₹1,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Dastaan
Dastaan
₹2,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Bakka vemana
Bakka vemana
₹600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Dastaan
Dastaan
₹2,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Arpit
5
5 (49 reviews)
Arpit
₹800
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Priyanka
5
5 (50 reviews)
Priyanka
₹400
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Aishwarya
5
5 (42 reviews)
Aishwarya
₹2,000
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Kunjan
5
5 (12 reviews)
Kunjan
₹1,500
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Ruchi
5
5 (36 reviews)
Ruchi
₹1,800
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Kiran
4.9
4.9 (8 reviews)
Kiran
₹1,400
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Shambhavi
Shambhavi
₹600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Dhruv
5
5 (3 reviews)
Dhruv
₹1,600
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Viparv
5
5 (3 reviews)
Viparv
₹500
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Prince
5
5 (5 reviews)
Prince
₹750
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Uma shankar
Uma shankar
₹500
/h
Gift icon
1st class free!
Let's go

Parts of the Constitution of India

The original text of the Indian Constitution, composed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and the Drafting Committee, consisted of 22 parts; after amendments, it currently contains 25. The 25 parts of the Indian Constitution are:

Parts and Subject Articles
Part I – The Union and its Territories 1 – 4
Part II – Citizenship 5 -11
Part III – Fundamental Rights 12 – 35
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy 36 – 51
Part IV A – Fundamental Duties 51A
Part V – The Union 52 – 151
Part VI – The States 152 – 237
Part VII – The States in Part B of the First Schedule 238 [Repealed]
Part VIII – The Union Territories 239 – 242
Part IX – The Panchayats 243 – 243O
Part IXA – The Municipalities 243P – 243ZG
Part IXB – The Co-operative Societies 243ZH – 243ZT
Part X – The Scheduled and Tribal Areas 244 – 244A
Part XI – Relation between the Union and the States 245 – 263
Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts, and Suits 264 – 300A
Part XIII – Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the territory of India 301 – 307
Part XIV – Services Under the Union and the States 308 – 323
Part XIVA – Tribunals 323A – 323B
Part XV – Elections 324 – 329A
Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes 330 – 342
Part XVII – Official language 343 – 351
Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions 352 – 360
Part XIX – Miscellaneous 361 – 367
Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution 368
Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions 369 – 392
Part XXII – Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals 393 – 395

Articles of the Indian Constitution for UPSC

Part 1: Article 1 – Article 4

  • Article 1 –Name of the union and its territories
  • Article 2 –Acceptance and creation of the new state
  • Article 3 – New state creation, as well as changes to the names, boundaries, and territories of existing states

Part 2: Article 5 – Article 11

  • Article 5 –Citizenship at the time the Constitution first came into effect
  • Article 6 –An individual’s citizenship rights after coming to India from Pakistan
  • Article 10 –Maintenance of citizenship rights
  • Article 11 –The right to citizenship will be governed by law by Parliament.

Part 3: Article 12 – Article 35

  • Article 12 –The state’s definition
  • Article 13 –Laws that violate or interfere with fundamental rights

Important Fundamental Rights of India

The Indian Constitution originally outlined seven fundamental rights, but only six remain. The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 repealed the Right to Property U/A 31. Part XII of the Constitution was amended to create the legal right U/A 300-A.

Right to Freedom: Article 19 to Article 22

  • Article 19 –Guarantees Indian citizens their six basic rights.
    • Freedom of speech and expression
    • The right to assemble peacefully and without weapons
    • Freedom to organize into unions or groups
    • The right to unrestricted movement throughout India’s borders
    • The freedom to live and establish oneself anywhere on Indian territory Omitted
    • The right to practice any profession and the freedom to engage in any occupation, trade, or business
  • Article 20 –Protection in respect of conviction for offenses
  • Article 21 –Protection of life and personal liberty
  • Article 22 –Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation: Article 23 to Article 24

  • Article 23 –Forced labor and human trafficking are prohibited
  • Article 24 –Prohibiting the use of young people (under 14) in factories and mines

Right to Exploitation: Article 25 to Article 28

  • Article 25 –Conscience, religious expression, and practice are permitted without any restriction.
  • Article 26 –The ability to control religious issues
  • Article 27 –Freedom from paying taxes to support a specific faith
  • Article 28 –Freedom from having to go to religious school
Every citizen must be aware of their fundamental rights. | Image source: India Legal

Cultural and Educational Rights: Article 29 to Article 30

  • Article 29 –Protection of minorities’ interests
  • Article 30 –Minorities have the right to create and run educational institutions.

Right to Constitutional Remedies: Article 32

  • Article 32 –Minorities can establish and manage educational institutions.

Part 6: Directive Principal of States Policy: Article 36 – 51

  • Article 36 – Definition
  • Article 37 – Application of DPSP
  • Article 39A – Free legal representation and equal justice
  • Article 40 – Forming a village panchayat
  • Article 41 – Right to employment, education, and, in some circumstances, public support
  • Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for Workers
  • Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries
  • Article 44 – Uniform civil code ( applicable in Goa only)
  • Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children
  • Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST, and OBC
  • Article 47 – Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health
  • Article 48 – Deals with agriculture and animal husbandry
  • Article 49 – Protection of monuments, places, and objects of natural importance
  • Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from the executive
  • Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security

Part 6: Union: Article 52 – 151

  • Article 52 –The President of India
  • Article 53 –Executive Power of the union
  • Article 54 –Election of President
  • Article 61 –Procedure for Impeachment of the President
  • Article 63 –The Vice-president of India
  • Article 64 –The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman of the council of States
  • Article 66 –Election of Vice-president
  • Article 72 –Pardoning powers of President
  • Article 74 –Council of ministers to aid and advise President
  • Article 76 –Attorney-General for India
  • Article 79 –Constitution of Parliament
  • Article 80 –Composition of Rajya Sabha
  • Article 81 –Composition of Lok Sabha
  • Article 83 –Duration of Houses of Parliament
  • Article 93 –The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
  • Article 105 –Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
  • Article 109 –Special procedure for money bills
  • Article 110 –Definition of “Money Bills”
  • Article 112 –Annual Financial Budget
  • Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
  • Article 123 –Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
  • Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
  • Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
  • Article 126 –Appointment of acting Chief justice
  • Article 127 –Appointment of ad-hoc judges
  • Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
  • Article 129 –Supreme Court to be a court of Record
  • Article 130 –Seat of the Supreme Court
  • Article 136 –Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court
  • Article 137 –Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
  • Article 141 –Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts
  • Article 148 –Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
  • Article 149 –Duties and Powers of CAG

Part 6: States: Article 152 – 237

  • Article 153 –Governors of State
  • Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
  • Article 161 –Pardoning powers of the Governor
  • Article 165 –Advocate-General of the State
  • Article 213 –Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
  • Article 214 – High Courts for states
  • Article 215 –High Courts to be a court of record
  • Article 226 –Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
  • Article 233 –Appointment of District judges
  • Article 235 –Control over Subordinate Courts
Part 7 Repealed: Article 238
Part 8 Union Territories: Article 239 – 242
Part 9 Panchayats: Article 243 – 243O 

  • Article 243A – Gram Sabha
  • Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats
Part 9A Municipalities: Article 243P – 243ZG
Part 9B Co-operative Societies: Article 243ZH – 243ZT
Part 10 Scheduled and Tribal Areas: Article 244
Part 11 Center- State Relations: Article 245 – 263

Part 12: Finance, Property, Contracts, and Suits: Article 264 – 300A

  • Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
  • Article 267 –Contingency Fund of India
  • Article 280 –Finance Commission
  • Article 300-A –Right to property

Part 13: Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the territories of India: Article 301 – 307

  • Article 301 – Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
  • Article 302 –Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.

Part 14: Services Under Center and State: Article 308 – 323

  • Article 312 –All- India-Service.
  • Article 315 –Public service commissions for the union and the states
  • Article 320 –Functions of Public Service Commission.

Part 14A: Tribunals: Article 323A – 323B

  • Article 323A –Administrative Tribunals

Part 15: Elections: Article 324 – 329

  • Article 324 –Superintendence, direction, and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
  • Article 325 –No person is to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
  • Article 326 –Elections to the people's house and to the legislative assemblies of states to be based on adult suffrage.

Part 16: Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, etc.: Article 330 – 342

  • Article 338 –National Commission for the SC & ST
  • Article 340 –Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.

Part 17: Official Language: Article 343 – 351

  • Article 343 –Official languages of the Union.
  • Article 345 –Official languages or languages of states.
  • Article 348 –Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
  • Article 351 –Directive for development of the Hindi languages.
The Constitution of India guarantees freedom of language to all Indian citizens. | Image source: Jagran Josh

Part 18: Emergency: Article 352 – 360

  • Article 352 –Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency).
  • Article 356 –State Emergency (President’s Rule)
  • Article 360 –Financial Emergency

Part 19: Miscellaneous: Article 361 – 367

  • Article 361-Protection of President and Governors

Part 20: Amendment of Constitution: Article 368

  • Article 368 –Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution

Part 21:  Special, Transitional, and Temporary Provisions: Article 369 – 392

  • Article 370 –Special provision of J&K.
  • Article 371A –Special provision for the State of Nagaland
  • Article 371-J –Special Status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region

Part 22: Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals: Article 392 – 395

  • Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India.

The first Article of the Constitution of India states that “India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States,” implying India and Bharat are equally the two official names for our nation. India has an official name in the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution. The English name is India, and the Hindi name is Bharat. Most other languages have a variation of Bharat except Tamil, where the official name is Indhiya. The long-form name adds the words 'Republic of' in English, Ganarajya in Hindi, and Jumhuriyat in Kashmiri and Urdu.

>

The platform that connects tutors and students

First Lesson Free

Enjoyed this article? Leave a rating.

5.00 (1 rating(s))
Loading...

Shreyanjana

Shreyanjana is an archaeologist who ironically finds the written word to be the most powerful means of storytelling. A travel buff and a photography enthusiast, she has been writing and sharing stories of all sorts ever since she can remember.